Category Archives: History


A boyfriend turned unfaithful and started dating other ladies. The girlfriend didn’t like it and turned amorous becoming flirtatious. She went everywhere with every guy she met but was not cheating, she was just getting even for what her boyfriend did. As Dr. Larry Izamoje of Brila FM do say in Warri parlance, do me I do you God no go vex. You pour sand into my garri, I pour gravel for your own, you carry my stove, I carry your gas cooker.

Has someone ever wronged you and you decided to get even? Is getting even desirable? Should we get even? How far should we go in getting even if we have to? Can getting even or paying someone back in his own coin be cautiously done? Can it be limited? Two wrongs don’t make it right. If you must get even, where is the place of forgiveness?

gbenga ogunbotesharks fc and coach

Now to the stories, recently, Head Coach of Sharks of Port Harcourt, Gbenga Ogunbote and the skipper (Captain) of the team, Odinga Odinga were attacked not by opponents but by supporters of the club. The aggrieved supporters said that they were getting even with the duo as a result of the recruitment of some players into the Port Harcourt side and they disagreed with the coach selection. They just did not like what the coach did in selecting players for the team and how he got the backing by the skipper and they decided it was pay-back time by attacking the duo.


In February 2012, Diego Amando Maradona criticized the then FC Barcelona Goal Keeper, Victor Valdez for conceding a cheeky goal. Valdez did not get even with Maradona but reply came from Paraguay former goalkeeper, Jose Luiz Chilavert. Chilavert launched verbal attack on the then Al Wazri FC coach, Maradona saying that Maradona knows nothing about football. He said that “Footballers have to look after themselves and not get into drugs”. Well nobody mentioned drugs when the matter started but in getting even, Chilavert did not know the lines where to draw the boundaries. In getting even with Maradona, Chilavert also said that “Maradona has done lots of damage to football” and recalled that he even spoke hill of Pope John Paul II. There was a move by Diego Maradona and his cohort to form a parallel players union in world football in 2012. Maradona said that the Federation of International Football Association (FIFA) stopped his plan and attempt to have another body that he wanted to call a new players union. Maradona got even with Sepp Blatter when he said that “they (FIFA) worked against us the moment they heard to ensure that the union never saw the light of the day.”


In 2011, the Federation of International Football Association (FIFA) suspended Qatar’s Mohammed Bin Hamman and shove Jack Warner aside to pave the way for Blatter’s sole candidacy at FIFA’s Presidential Election that year. Maradona said “I wonder if Blatter ever kicked a good football in his life and yet we have been under the control of this man who has refused to give up power in FIFA”. Looking at everyone in FIFA, Maradona said that “why didn’t they all relinquish their position, take the money they have made and leave the running of football in more capable hands of footballers, I don’t support corrupt people and I will never be on their side. I have always been asked to support them in FIFA but why should I support them?”


In getting even, if you want to have and enjoy your dinner tonight, please don’t invite Jose Mourinho and Arsene Wenger. After battling verbal jabs thrown at him by Jose Mourinho for many years including calling him “an expert in failure”, Arsene Wenger went physical on October 2013 as he tried to get even by pushing Jose Mourinho in daylight before television cameras, players, and ball boys who were shocked. When asked why he did what he did, he said “I did not push him, when I push a man you will see that I have pushed”. So that was not really pushing but he was getting even.

cantonacantonna and simmons

To Eric Cantona. On January 25, 1995 when Crystal Palace took on Manchester United, a Palace player, Richard Shaw caused Eric Cantona to be given a red card when he retaliated. As he was going down the tunnel, a fan of the team Matthew Simmons threw words of hate at him. Cantona decided to get even and threw Kungfu kicks at the fan and also followed up with some Mayweather styled punches as he got even.

barnes225EA2DE500000578-0-Referee_Martin_Atkinson_shows_the_red_card_to_Matic_for_his_reac-a-1_1424552329621-634x366Nemanja Matic red card

Chelsea’s Nemanja Matic lost his head and saw red after pushing Burnley’s Ashley Barnes. He got even because of what Ashley Barnes did.


In 2006, Zinedine Zidane head-butted Italy’s Marco Materrazzi in a World Cup final. Asked why he got even before a global television audience in a World Cup final, he said that “he was intense by Marco Materrazzi who said unprintable things about his mother, sister and himself”.


In his days as a player for Inter Milan, Taribo West threw his shirt at his coach Lucescu. Taribo did that because he wanted to get even. He could not understand why the coach will substitute him in a game where other players were not doing well. “The fault was not his”, he reckoned but that of the attackers who were not getting it right as that match that was played between Inter Milan and Salernitana ended 1-1.

© BEATE HEINEN, 08.11.03, VfL Bochum - 1. FC Kšln, 1. Liga, 03/04: Sunday Oliseh

Sunday Oliseh


Sunday Oliseh in the year 2004 was released by his then team Vfl Bochum of Germany after he head-butted team mate Vahid Hashemian. They both quarrelled and Vahid called the Nigerian “A Black Monkey”. Oliseh did not like that and decided to get even and gave him a head-but.

weah costa feud_1194989_waehcosta300

In 1996, Jorge Costa of Porto at that time called AC Milan’s George Weah “A Black Nigger”. George Weah could not take it and said “I would rather return to Liberia but before I go, take this one” and he head-butted Jorge Costa.

Have you been hurt or disappointed by someone? Have you been let down, given the short end of the stick, short changed and you plan to get even with somebody? Please don’t get even like the above players as two wrongs don’t make it right. The best way out is to walk out and seek advice from an experienced expert or personality rather than getting even and engaging in violent rift. Don’t get even!


Constitutional Development: Richards Constitution of 1946


Sir Arthur Richard

The isolationist policy pursued by Lord Lugard and continued by the Clifford Constitution of 1922 whereby the North was sheltered from contact with the rest of the country was not making for national unity which the colonial government wanted to foster. As such, Sir Bernard Bourdillon, the Governor of Nigeria, decided yo take more interest in the affairs of the whole country. Their attitude, he wrote should not be “We will not have the southerners interfere in our affairs” but rather “we ought to have at least an equal say with southerners in advising the governor as to the affairs of the whole country”.
When Sir Arthur Richard became Governor of Nigeria he began to work on a constitution which he believed would bring about greater unity in the country. According to him the constitution was to promote the unity of the country, provide adequately within that unity for the diverse elements that made up the country and to secure for the Africans
greater participation in the discussion of their own affair.
Under the constitution, there was a Legislative Council for the whole of Nigeria. It was composed of the governor as President; 16 official members, 13 of whom were ex-officio and 2 nominated; 28 unofficial members, 4 of whom were elected and 24 nominated or indirectly elected members.
By this constitution the Northern Provinces were brought within the legislative competence of the Nigerian Legislative Council. The council had power to make law for the whole country subject of course to the governor’s reserve power.
It is important to note that for the first time in Nigeria unofficial members on the legislative council were in the majority. These nominated unofficial members were indirectly nominated. They were nominated by the regional assemblies which were established under the constitution in the three different groups of provinces- the Northern, Western and Eastern group of provinces

Governor Donald Cameron


Sir Donald Cameron was previously the governor of Tanganyika in East Africa (1925-1931) and became governor of Nigeria in 1931. He was known to have developed the Indirect Rule in Tanganyika and as such had gained a lot of experience from that country. In Nigeria, his objective was to modernize the system somewhat. In an address to the legislative council, he restated the Lugardian principle of Indirect Rule and went further to clarify certain aspects of it. He especially deplored the tendency to overlook some of the evil practices of the rulers, especially in the North, and he told the administrative officers under him not to neglect their primary duty of educating the native authorities “in their duties as rulers of their people according veto civilized standards.” He then went on to initiate certain policies which he believed would foster Nigerian unity.
He did not believe in the policy set up by Lord Lugard of developing the North and South on separate lines. He also did not like the absence of constitutional link between the central government and the native administrations in both North and South. He therefore abolished the offices of Lieutenant Governors and substituted those of Chief Commissioners. He encouraged Northern rulers and their staff to visit the south and the United Kingdom to broaden their outlook.
Sir Donald Cameron was also remarkable in his reorganization of the judicial system. He abolished the provincial courts where lawyers were not allowed to appear, and replaced them with the High Court and magistrate courts where lawyers could appear. He was also responsible for setting up a system of Native Court to the authority of the Supreme Court.
In spite of his effort to liberalize and put the country on a fairly uniform kind of administrative development, the diversity of the country did not permit such development. The country continued to grapple with the problem of disunity even after he had gone.

Constitutional Development: Clifford Constitution of 1922


The Clifford Constitution of 1922 abolished the Nigerian Council of 1914 as it was replaced by a new Legislative Council through which Nigerians will be given access to power via electoral principles.
Considering the provisions of Clifford Constitution, the Legislative Council was composed of 46 members of which official members including the Governor and 19 Non-official members out of which 15 were nominated by the Governor, 10 of the 19 non-officials were Nigerians. Also, it was established that for the category of male adult who can vote and be voted for must have resided in the country for 12 months and have gross annual income of 100 Pounds per annum. As a matter of fact, the North was not incorporated into the Legislative Council. But the Governor continues to rule by Proclamation in the North. The era also led to the establishment of first political party in Nigeria in 1923 by Herbert Macaulay (NNDP) and the establishment of newspaper like West African Pilot and Lagos Daily News.
More importantly, the Executive Council established by the Constitution was purely an advisory body to the Governor General because of the veto power. It was made up of 10 ex-officio members. Hence, Executive Council was exclusively reserved for the Europeans (it was strictly an European affair).
Finally, the Constitution allows more representation than 1914 Constitution and set the pace for Nationalist agitation by training them for future political activities  in spite of some of its shortcomings like restricted franchise, white domination, Governor’s veto power and introduction of sectionalism into Nigerian politics.



                                          TABLE OF CONTENTS


Title Page …………………………………………………………..i




Table of Content……………………………………………………




1.1      Background to the Study…………………………………………1

1.2      Objective of the Study……………………………………………1

1.3      Significant of the Study………………………………………….2

1.4      Methodology……………………………………………………..2

1.5      Literature Review…………………………………………………3

Notes and References……………………………………………5




2.1      Origin of Sagamu………………………………………………..6

2.2      Historical Background of Sagamu Local Government Headquarter-Sagamu………………………………………………………….7

2.3      Geographical Location…………………………………………..8

2.4      Administration and Natural Mineral Resources………………..9

Notes and References…………………………………………12




3.1      History of Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC…………….14

3.2      The New Face of Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC………15

3.3      Departmental Sections and Manufacturing Facilities…………..16

3.4      Vision, Mission and Future Plans of the Company…………….19

Notes and References………………………………………….22




4.1      Infrastructural Impacts…………………………………………23

4.2      Health Care Facilities……………………………………………24

4.3      Education……………………………………………………….24

4.4      Youth Empowerment…………………………………………….25

4.5      General Impact of Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC on Community Development Programs on Sagamu People…………………………………………………………..27

     Notes and References……………………………………………31






                                        CHAPTER ONE





The main purpose of establishing a company in a particular geographical location is not only for profit maximization but to impact positively in the life of host community. There must be a close relationship between a company and her immediate environment (host community) for such company to thrive and succeed in her area of operation (place of operation).

More often than not, companies do allocate budget or part of their profits for the development of their host communities. This allocation can consequently be used to develop their host communities in various spheres like education, infrastructural development in terms of social amenities, youth empowerment, health care facilities etc. All these are parts of Companies Corporate Social Responsibilities (C.S.R) to their host communities invariably developing such communities in the process.1


The aim and objective of this research work is to examine the role of Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC as a company operating in Sagamu vicinity in the development of the Local Government Area in terms of the company’s Corporate Social Responsibility (C.S.R) to Sagamu which is in different facets.2

Furthermore, this work intends to examine the historical background and profile of the company cum brief history of Sagamu serving as a guideline for those who might want to write and research on the role of companies in the development of Sagamu Local government Area.


      The fact that there are few written works on this subject matter served as the main reason for embarking on this research work hoping that at the end of this project, researchers will use it as a spring board or guideline to write on the role of other companies in the development of Sagamu Local Government Area cum the economic history of Sagamu.

This work will examine the impact of Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC on community development in Sagamu Local Government Area, the profile of the company and historical background and profile of Sagamu Local Government Area invariably serving as guideline for those who might want to write on the role of other companies in the development of Sagamu Local Government Area upon the conclusion of this research project.


The disciplinary approach is adopted in this study. During my research study, two (2) main sources were consulted to collate data. These were secondary and oral sources providing relevant information that is needed for the study. Different texts relevant to this work were consulted, though scanty provided valuable as well as reliable information for this work in addition to published and unpublished works were also consulted.

During this research work, different classes of people were interviewed such as literates, illiterates, intellectuals, community chiefs, civil/public servants, and legal luminaries, young and old people within Sagamu Local Government Area.

However, information gotten from the Local Government Council was scanty due to frequent Chairmanship changes in preparation for Chairmanship Elections3 as the Care-taker Committee were only able to give minute information pertaining to the history of Sagamu hence oral tradition was relied on as a major source of information from one individual to the other in order to avert distortion, exaggeration, biases and embellishment.4


There are few written works on this subject matter (The Role of Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC on the Development of Sagamu Local Government Area). Available works only focused on the origin and few economic activities in Sagamu i.e the development of Sagamu Community. For instance, “Markets and Community Development, A Case of Sabo Markets, Sagamu, Ogun State”. There is also the Impact of Kolanut on the Economy of Sagamu, while the origin of Sagamu was briefly discussed in The Early Traditional Institutions of Ibido, Sagamu 1870 to 1980s.

Historians like A.I Asiwaju and E.A Ayandele made mention of the Ijebus in their articles in ”Groundwork of Nigerian History” making reference to the Ijebus as a single entity discarding and not mentioning the different towns and villages in Ijebuland in which Sagamu is an integral part.6


Moreover, earlier scholars like A.G Hopkins in his book, An Economic History of West Africa7 , U.I Ukwu and B.W Hodder’s Markets in West Africa8 were also consulted as they helped this research work on the economic activities of West Africa economy and markets per se. However, these scholars viewed West African markets and economy from European perspectives neglecting traditional African economic view point.

“Minutes of Evidence taken by a Commission of Inquiry Appointed to Inquire in the Political and Administrative Relations Between The Awujale of Ijebu Ode and the Akarigbo of Ijebu Remo” was also extensively consulted in order to have the knowledge of the origin, migrations, and relationships between the two (2) Obas of Ijebu Ode and Sagamu Remo (Remo in generality) before 1937 but this minutes did not dwell much on the economic developments in Sagamu.9       

      Samuel Johnson in his book, A History of the Yorubas, narrated the history of Ijebuland before colonialism and its attack in 1892 by the British making mention of Ijebu towns like Ijebu Remo, Ijebu Igbo and Ijebu Ode in the process.10













                                NOTES AND REFERENCES


  1. Dr R.A Olaoye: Extract from Nigeria from 1970 to Present Lecture, 2011.
  2. Ibid.
  3. Mrs O.O Shigbeku: Personal Interview, Civil Servant, 35 years.
  4. Dr A.S Adebola: Extract from History Research Methods 1 Lecture, 2010.
  5. Ogunbotu O.F: Impact of Kolanuts on the Economy of Sagamu,

Paper Presentation on Sagamu Day, 2003.

  1. Obaro Ikime (ed.): Groundwork of Nigerian History, Ibadan,

Heineman Limited (Ltd), 1980.

  1. A.G Hopkins: An Economic History of West Africa, United

Kingdom (U.K), Longman, 1973.

  1. U.I Ukwu and B.W Hodder: Markets in West Africa, Ibadan, Ibadan University Press, 1969.
  2. Ijebu Commission of Inquiry Minutes of Evidences Taken by a Commission of Inquiry into the Political and Administrative Relations between The Awujale of Ijebu Ode and The Akarigbo of Ijebu Remo, September-November, 1937.
  1. Samuel Johnson: History of the Yorubas, Lagos, I.S.S Bookshop, 1969.

                                       CHAPTER TWO





The origin of the town named “Sagamu”, the socio-political and economic nerve centre of Remo Division of Ogun state dates back to about three (3) centuries ago when the Remos emigrated from Iremo Quarters of Ile-Ife, described as one of the best areas in the town. Ife is the accredited traditional fountain of the Yorubas.1

On the instruction of Oduduwa, the founder of Yorubaland, his sons, including the Akarigbo, led their people out of Ile-Ife to find their various domains in parts of the land. The Remos moved towards the coast and eventually settled in various locations to form thirty three (33) towns in Western part of the old Ijebu Province. Each settlement has its own Oba to direct its affairs. A decision was taken in1869 on the essence of living together during the Yoruba internecine war. In response, thirteen (13) of these thirty three (33) towns, which were located two (2) or three (3) miles away, formed a confederation as a mutual protection against the incessant attacks.2

These towns are Offin, Makun, Epe, Ijagba, Latawa, Ado, Soyindo, Batoro, Oko, Igbepa, Ibido, Ijoku and Ipoji. All the Obas of these towns now wear crowns and are recognized by the government. The then paramount Chief of the Remos, the Akarigbo, Oba Igimisoje, in 1869 sent out some hunters in search of a suitable place for the proposed confederation as spelt out by the oracle.3

After wondering for many days in the forest, the hunters came across a pot-like source of a clear sparkling brook surrounded by beautiful flowering shrubs. Then later returned to inform the Akarigbo that they had found a place “ORISAGAMU-EWA” (which literally means God erects a pot of beauty with a cooling stream) as an ideal place for them. Sagamu, the name of the town was thus coined from “Orisagamu Ewa”.4


Sagamu Local Government was under former Political Administrative network of Remo division of the defunct Western Region of Nigeria. The geographical entity called Remo zone became divided on the 23rd September, 1991 when the Federal Military Government of Nigeria created more local Governments. This led to the creation of the Local Government from the then Remo Local Government Area namely, Ikenne and Sagamu Local Governments. Long before this, Sagamu Township stands at the apex of political, economic and cultural activities.5

The present Sagamu Local Government includes the Territory of the older divisions of Offin, Makun, and Ode-Lemo Local Councils. The Local Government by the virtue of its geographical location lies within the tropics. It is bounded in the East by Ikenne Local Government, in the North by Remo North Local Government, in the West and South by Obafemi Owode Local Government in Ogun State, and Ikorodu Local Government in Lagos State.6

The Local Government is peopled by all tribes in Nigeria though Remo dialect of Yoruba language is the main local language. The Sabo Area of Offin, Sagamu, can be mistaken for any typical Northern Town for language, setting and culture. The main occupation of the people is farming while few engage in industrialization and Civil Service job. Moreover, the Local Government has the largest kolanut Market in Nigeria. This is an indicator of the fact that majority of the people are kolanut farmers.7


            The Sagamu Local Government Geographical and Political Administrative spans a total area of 68.3 square kilometers. The climate pattern of the Local Government is a subset of the humid tropical region, characterized by relative high temperature, apparent absence of cold session, low pressure and high relative humidity.8

As at 2006 Population Census, Sagamu Local Government Area has a total Population figure of about 253,421 people. The estimated population of people living in Sagamu as at 2008 was about 269,744 people showing a growth rate of 3.12288 %. By virtue of the level of industrial, economic development and population concentration, the Local Government is urban in status. Invariably, over 60% of the populations of the Local Government Area are found within the confines of the urban centres.9

The Local Government is peopled by all tribes in Nigeria, and the languages spoken are Yoruba (language of the predominant majority), Hausa and English (official language). The languages spoken by major ethnic groups bear the names of groups so also the dialects bear that of the sub-ethnic sub divisions. However, Remo dialect of Yoruba language is the main local language.10

Sagamu Local Government Area by virtue of the industrial, educational and commercial establishment located in it have been able to attract and retain non-Nigerians particularly from E.C.O.W.A.S (Economic Community of West African States) countries and a number of Europeans working in mineral-based industries.11


The Political Administrative seat of the Local Government is located in Sagamu Township along Bashorun Adebisi Adesanya Way, Aiyepe Road, Sagamu, Ogun State. By all standards, Sagamu Local Government Area is an urban settlement given the available evidence of physical, human, economic development and social infrastructure forming part of the familiar landscaping of the Local Government Area.12

For Administrative convenience, Sagamu Local Government Area is divided into fifteen (15) Political wards, namely:

Ward 1-Oko, Epe and Itunla.

Ward 2-Oko, Epe and Itunla 2.

Ward 3-Aiyegbami Ijoku.

Ward 4-Sabo 1.

Ward 5-Sabo 2.

Ward 6-Itunsokun Oyebajo.

Ward 7-Ijagba.

Ward 8-Latawa.

Ward 9-Ode Lemo.

Ward 10-Ogijo Likosi.

Ward 11-Surulere.

Ward 12-Isote.

Ward 13-Simawa.

Ward 14-Agbowa.

Ward 15-Ibido Itun Alara.13

Sagamu Local Government Area is one of the industrial nerve centre of Ogun State blessed with numerous and abundant natural/mineral resources like limestone and gypsum. The Local Government Area constitute one of the geographical areas within the state that enjoys the location and spread of extensive limestone deposits found within the state. This has led to the establishment of cement factories. The Local Government is responsible for the production of 35% of cement needs of the entire nation through Sagamu Portland Cement Factory (Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC).14

Among the mineral that have been found in commercial quantity include clay, phosphate, and kaolin. All these minerals constitute part of the rock-based minerals attributed to the geological basement complex sedimentary rock, which underlies approximately three (3) quarters of Ogun State in which Sagamu is a subset.15



                               NOTES AND REFERENCES


  1. History of Makun/Sagamu, Origin, Migration and Settlement in Sagamu- (Retrieved 14/06/2011).
  2. Ijebu Commission of Inquiry Minutes of Evidence Taken By a Commission of Inquiry Appointed to Inquire into the Political and Administrative Relations Between The Awujale of Ijebu Ode and The Akarigbo of Ijebu Remo, September-November, 1937.
  3. Chief (Major) Orekoya (Rtd): Personal Interview, Community Chief, 78 years
  4. Chief (Major) Orekoya (Retired): Personal Interview, Community Chief, 78 years.
  5. Sagamu Local Government-

(Retrieved 10/06/2011).

  1. Sagamu Local Government-

(Retrieved 10/06/2011).

  1. Chief (Major) Orekoya (Rtd): Personal Interview, Community Chief, 78 years
  2. Profile of Sagamu Local Government headquarters-Sagamu- (Retrieved 13/06/2011).
  3. Profile of Sagamu Local Government headquarters-Sagamu- (Retrieved 13/06/2011).
  4.    Profile of Sagamu Local Government Compiled by Information, Education and Sports Department, Sagamu Local Government, Sagamu.
  5.    Ibid.
  6.    Ibid.
  7.    Mrs O.O Shigbeku: Personal Interview, Civil Servant, 35 years.
  8. Opcit Profile of Sagamu Local Government.
  9. Opcit.

                       CHAPTER THREE





Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC, formerly West African Portland Cement PLC was established in 1959 with its first factory in Ewekoro, Ogun State, Nigeria in 1960. The discovery of limestone in Sagamu area made it easy for the establishment of a second cement factory in Sagamu, Ogun State commissioned by Honorable Minister of Labour and Industry, Sir Roland Adeleye in May, 1978. The company commenced production with an initial capacity of 200,000 tonnes per annum, but this later grew with demand to about 1.5 million metric tonnes per annum.1

In response to a growing demand for cement and aligned products, West African Portland Cement PLC (WAPCO) has remained the flagship producer of the essential input to building in Nigeria. Symbolized by the strength of the Elephant, its brand has continued to depict power, maturity, resilience, durability and reliability. Elephant Cement has continued to expand and assert itself as a market leader across boarders, despite the overall instability and weakness of the market. This brand is successful primarily due to its outstanding quality complemented by their superior sales network and a world-class logistic framework to position the Elephant brand as a clear leader in its product class.


From the late 1990s, the company began to witness reduction in output due to the age of the inaugural plant in Ewekoro. However, to cope with future challenges through increased productivity, improved efficiency and cost effectiveness, a modern state-of-the-art plant was commissioned in Ewekoro in August 2003 to replace the obsolete and aged plant. The new plant capacity of 1.32 million metric tonnes per annum has since commenced production with attendant result of increased output by the company.2

As a result of its takeover of Blue Circle Industries PLC, United Kingdom (U.K) on July 1, 2001, Lafarge SA of France became the majority shareholder in WAPCO. Lafarge is the largest cement producer in the world and the world leader in building materials. With the acquisition, WAPCO is integrating into the Lafarge culture, implementing process reengineering and imbibing Lafarge’s Best Practices.

Safety as its Number One priority in line with business objective of its parent company, Lafarge WAPCO remains a market and industry leader within the organized private sector in Nigeria, with responsibility for over 50% of local cement production. Efforts are ongoing to achieve optimization of output from the two (2) plants in Ewekoro and Sagamu. Several projects under the New Dawn Programme are focused on this objective and results so far have been quite encouraging. WAPCO is also committed to improving its processes and procedures to meet international standards.

WAPCO has embraced quality management system and quality culture, which requires showing clear evidence of meeting customer’s requirements in terms of quality and satisfaction. The company’s brand; Elephant Cement is of impeccable standard and quality. Little wonder the company has consistently won the NIS Certificate for product quality by the Nigerian Standard Organization for over two (2) decades now. As a testimony to the international standard of product and services in the company, WAPCO was awarded the NIS ISO 9001 Certification in 2000. The Sagamu factory has also been certified to NIS ISO 14001 as the mark of its compliance to environment and safety standards in its operations.3

With two (2) subsidiaries namely Portland Electrical Repairs Limited, which is wholly owned, and Nigeria Kraft Bags Limited in which it has 56.2%, West African Portland Cement PLC is making its contribution to the continued development of Nigeria and its economic stability.


            The creation of departments and divisions is known as departmentalization. Different patterns of departmentalization are possible and the pattern selected by a company will depend on the peculiar circumstances of the organization. Nevertheless, any organization may be divided into different departments according to numbers, shifts, functions and geographical location as it is the case with Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC. Departmentalization is also the grouping into departments of work activities that are similar and logically connected in relation to such company’s organizational chart which is a diagrammatic representation of the relationship between the various organs of the organization, i.e, the structure of the organization as depicted in the appendix of this project showing the line of authority and responsibility.4

There are various departments, sections and portfolios given to diverse individuals in Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC, Sagamu plant ranging from Plant Manager, Maintenance Manager, Environmental Services Manager, Production Manager, Safety Manager, Electrical Manager, Process and Quality Manager, Supervisors to co-workers.

The Plant Manager ensures that the plant (factory) is kept in good shape and also ensures that various measures are put in place aimed at fostering the effectiveness and efficiency of the factory. Maintenance Manager’s function is to monitor the quality of equipments used by workers in the factory as well as reporting any fault noticed to the Electrical Manager for onward repair of such equipment. The Environmental Services Manager is saddled with the responsibility of sanitary inspection aimed at ensuring that the factory’s surroundings is made tidy (clean) at all times. The Production Manager is expected to monitor the transformation of raw materials (limestone, shale, red alluvium, gypsum, iron ore) into finished goods (cement) and the distribution of the finished goods to the customers to satisfy their wants.5

Safety Manager is another portfolio in the company and is expected to monitor the safety precautions of workers which may be in form of putting on their helmets, sun glasses, factory shoe et al. The Safety Manager ensures that workers adhere to the company’s safety precautions which is aimed at securing their lives. The Electrical Manager is saddled with the responsibility of repairing and monitoring (supervising) the repair of electrical faults and damages in the plant in order to ensure that all electrical appliances in the plant are better of and not worse of. Process and Quality Manager more often than not inspects the finished product (cement) of the company in order to ensure that the product is of high quality and durability before product distribution to the customers. Supervisors on the other hand monitors different departmental sections in order to forestall effectiveness and efficiency of services rendered by these departments and workers productivity while the workers and co-workers are at the lower cadre of  the company’s departmental sections as they are involved in the physical work in the plant from raw materials extraction to the distribution of the finished goods (cement).

The manufacturing facilities of Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC, Sagamu plant include among others limestone roller crusher, wet ball raw mills, wet kilns, cement mills and packers. The kilns were oil (LPFO) fired. The factory capacity up-rated to 850,000 tonnes cement per annum in 1980 with addition of one Raw mill and one roller crusher for limestone. The current capacity is about 900,000 tonnes. The plant raw materials include limestone, shale alluvium, gypsum, iron ore and Abeokuta clay (kaolin). Gypsum was imported or sourced locally. In May 1992, the kiln firing system was changed to natural gas. In 1996, Dust Scoop system was installed on No. 2 kiln while the one on No. 1 kiln was installed in 2001.6


Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC aimed to be the undisputed leader in the manufacturing and marketing of cement in South-West Nigeria. It also aimed at maintaining its position as a leading company which operates its business with such efficiency and integrity, that all stakeholders (customers, staff, Neighbor, shareholders) are justifiably proud to be associated with Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC.

For many years, Lafarge has been committed to a deliberate strategy of sustainable development that combines industrial know-how with performance, value creation, respect for employees and local cultures, environmental protection and the conservation of natural resources and energy.

The company is committed to progress and attentive to ever-changing needs of local communities, contributing to the improvement of their quality of lives by setting up local development programmes, health care, housing, education and human capital development.7

To better align its action with these values, Lafarge has established global partnership with Non Governmental Organisation (N.G.O’s) like W.W.F-the global conservation organizations, Habitat for Humanity to cooperate and provide descent housing to under-privileged people in twelve (12) countries (to be extended to 25 countries by 2010); CARE to fight against HIV/AIDS in the work place and communities.8

To make advances in building materials, Lafarge places the customer at the heart of its concerns. It offers the construction industry and the general public innovative solutions bringing greater safety, comfort and quality to their everyday surroundings.9

Lafarge WAPCO stands to enjoy high value creation via introduction of turning point to display customer orientation, technical excellence and innovations from its branding platform. The benefit of being part of Lafarge is that their shareholders expect good return on investment from a better-managed organization and feel proud to be part of a global Market leader. Customers are equally proud to be associated with an International brand and expect high quality products, resulting from modern equipments and international standards and enhanced customers relations.

Employees look forward to development and technical trainings, wider access to knowledge through the Group’s intranet and internalization. The Company’s host communities like Sagamu benefit from best practices on environment, community relations and social responsibility.

In furtherance to the company’s vision of becoming the undisputed leader in the manufacturing and marketing of cement in South West, Nigeria, the company’s expansion project (Lakatabu) will add another 2.2 mt to the existing volume of 2.0 mt.

Consistently, the company’s brand has won the NIS Certificate for product quality by the Nigerian Standard Organisation for over two (2) decades now. Other awards won by Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC include: Quoted Company of the year 2005, Winner Construction/building Materials Sector 2005, Standard Organisation of Nigeria NIS Gold Award 2005, and Remo Chamber of Commerce Corporate Award of Excellence 2005.10

Those in Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC are driven towards continuous innovation and modernization of their production methodologies in order to protect their environment and remain at the cutting edge of technology. The new Ewekoro plant has raised the bar and expanded the company’s production range and target market, increasing its national market share to over 35%.

Tomorrow’s Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC will continue to be a pace setter in producing quality cement, driving customer satisfaction to the highest attainable limits in order to remain the producer of choice for the ever growing construction industry in Nigeria. At Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC, there is strength of an ELEPHANT to continue to deliver.

                                  NOTES AND REFERENCES


  1. Mr Folajimi: Personal Interview, Assistant Manager Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC, Sagamu, 47 years.
  2. (Retrieved 17/11/2011).
  3. (Retrieved 17/11/2011).
  4. O.A. Longe: Essential Commerce for Senior Secondary Schools, Lagos, Tonad Publishers Limited (Ltd), 2001, pp 196.
  5. Ibid.
  6. (Retrieved 17/11/2011).
  7. Lafarge Cement WAPCO Community Development Projects Report, Sagamu, 2010.
  8. Ibid.
  9. Engineer Wole Adesoye: Personal Interview, Head of Department Electrical Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC, Sagamu, 52 years.
  10. Engineer Wole Adesoye: Personal Interview, Head of Department (H.O.D) Electrical Lafarge WAPCO Nigeria PLC, Sagamu, 52 years.

                                CHAPTER FOUR





It is Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC social obligation to assist or partner with the host communities in which Sagamu Local Government Area is an integral part believing that if the host community is developed, the company will also develop. Every year, Lafarge Cement Nigeria PLC has budget set aside for community development in Sagamu. Lafarge Cement Nigeria PLC do meet with Sagamu Community Development Association in order to liase on the needs of the community considering the profits of the company.1

The infrastructural developmental programmes embarked upon by the company in Sagamu Local Government Area include physical projects like Sagamu library, provision of borehole, generating set (generator), internet services, installing more than seventy (70) boreholes and deep well in public areas. There is also the building of public toilets in major motor garage or places together with other projects in places like Ogijo, Igbepa, Mosimi, Oke Ate, Ayetoro, Igode, Ita-Merin and other environs within Sagamu with repairs on sixty one (61) projects (pipe, generator, deep wells, well Head or cover, wiring and tank).

Other infrastructural community projects embarked upon by Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC between 2005-2010 include purchase of a new 18-seater bus equipped with Public Address System, donation of environmental sanitation items, provision of boreholes in Sagamu town, public toilet at all markets, motorcycles for town Vigilantes, agricultural development support for farmers in towns like Ode Lemo, Iperu, Ilisan, Ikenne and construction of good roads.


            In terms of health care facilities, Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC assists the Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital (O.O.U.T.H) located in Sagamu in terms of generating sets (generators) and donation of ultra modern chest Diagnostic Clinic at the University Teaching Hospital cum laboratory equipments together with donation of environmental sanitation items to the community in order to ensure that Sagamu inhabitants are hail and healthy.

The company also provided health care facilities in Sabo, Makun and Emuren Health Centres.2





Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC do contribute their small quota in the development of education via the Sagamu Community Library and giving exercise books to students in eighteen (18) secondary schools within Remo area cum provision of exercise books for pupils of fifty two (52) public and few selected private primary schools, bursary awards for indigent students that are performing well in secondary and tertiary institutions via their C.G.P.A, renovation of deep wells in Public Schools and upgrading of Sagamu Community Information Technology (I.T) Learning Centre into Microsoft Academy.

The company through her Community Learning Centre trains students in Information and Communication Technology (I.C.T) courses in Microsoft and other accredited courses together with sponsorship of coaching classes for West African Senior School Certificate Examination (W.A.S.S.C.E) students within Sagamu vicinity. The company also built schools like the WAPCO School for the Handicap in order to educate the physically challenged in Sagamu.


An idle mind or youth is the devil’s workshop hence Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC more often than not embarked on skill Acquisition Programmes for Sagamu youths geared towards the tutelage/teaching of youths to acquire skills like hair dressing, vulcanizing, welding, plumbing and earth equipment mechanics. The Sagamu Community Development Association under the aegis (auspices) of Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC do organize trainings for youths with skilled workers and give these skilled workers incentives to encourage them in youth skill acquisition. After graduation, Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC do give graduant materials to work with providing funds and materials for youth empowerment scheme in the process.3

Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC do provide employment opportunities for Sagamu youths in various spheres in the organization like cleaners, gatemen, contractors, helpers, welders, fabricators etc. As part of the company’s Corporate Social Responsibilities (C.S.R) to Sagamu Community, Sagamu being nearer to the plant (industry) are getting (purchasing) their cement at a cheaper rate more than those that are living in a far place.

Furthermore, the company do organize sporting competitions for the youth on their football pitch, golf course where Sagamu people (Sagamites) train and play golf and sponsors the Annual Lafarge Remo Football Competition. Other miscellaneous Community Development projects embarked upon by the company in Sagamu includes radio communication sponsorship-Remo Teni, purchase of 12 seater bus for Sagamu Youth Council, fish farming projects for land owners, maintenance of Sagamu Community Development Council Resource Centre, sinking of twenty six (26) Boreholes in Oba Palace, air conditioning, internet connections and furniture for public library.4

All the above mentioned projects in infrastructure, health care facilities, education and youth empowerment are embarked upon by the company between 2005-2010 at the new dawn or face of Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC all aimed at providing quality goods and services, developmental programmes, employment of community members, controlling pollution, provision of social amenities, support for sports, games and award of scholarships5 to improve the standards of living of Sagamu people in consonance with Tom Chappell’s assertion that “I believe we have been able to expand upon the historical point of view that business is just for making money to a broader view that business is about doing good for others in the process of getting financial gain”.6


Worthy of note was the fact that the establishment of the Sagamu factory of West African Portland Cement PLC in May 1978 has made the company from that time onward to focus more on infrastructural and education sector in order to ensure the development of both spheres. Before the company’s intervention in the 1990s, some roads in the community were death traps and are not motor able. The construction of major roads embarked upon by the company within this period aimed at complementing the efforts of the state and federal government has reduced accident cases on major road networks in Sagamu Local Government Area.

The need to improve the standard of education of pupils and students in Sagamu has made West African Portland Cement PLC as they were being referred to in the 1990s to give exercise books and other writing materials to students of major Secondary (Public Secondary Schools) within Sagamu in the mid-1990s as the company observed that the parents of these students can’t afford to buy them writing materials as most of the students rarely have sufficient writing materials and textbooks. Public Primary Schools in Sagamu were also not left out of these benefits as they were well catered for by the company in terms of provision of writing materials. Furthermore, in order to give the physically challenged youths a sense of belonging via education, West African Portland Cement PLC (WAPCO) established the WAPCO School for the Handicapped in the 1990s aimed at training the blind, deaf and dumbed youths in the act of communication, reading, writing and participation in sporting competitions to be fit physically, mentally and psychologically. All these are aimed at developing the community infrastructurally and educationally.7

The most important and significant epoch in the history of the company was its takeover by Blue Circle Industries PLC, United Kingdom (U.K), on July 1 2001, Lafarge SA of France then became the majority shareholder in WAPCO invariably leading to the change in nomenclature and name of the company from West African Portland Cement PLC (WAPCO) to Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC. This led to an improvement in the company’s Corporate Social Responsibilities (C.S.R) in terms of economic, legal, ethical and discretional responsibilities. The latter (discretional responsibilities) which relates to the company’s contribution to Sagamu Local Government Area was given credence in many other spheres cutting across health care facilities, education, infrastructural facilities, youth empowerment and employment opportunities for Sagamu youths. This does not mean that the company didn’t employ Sagamu indigenes prior to this time but more credence was given to it from 2001 aimed at alleviating unemployment in the Local Government Area. It should be noted that from 2001 till date, Sagamu inhabitants had been employed in large chunk in the company invariably giving them a means of livelihood (earning their living from the company’s employment opportunity). Moreso, since the establishment of the cement factory in Sagamu, many building (construction) block producers and bricklayers in Sagamu had been patronizing the Elephant cement product, purchasing it at a cheaper price as compared to those that are living in a far place hence reducing the cost of production and serving as means of livelihood to block producers and bricklayers in the process.8

Infrastructurally and architecturally, there had been improvement in construction and various storey buildings and gigantic edifice had been constructed in Sagamu with the use of Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC brand (Elephant Cement) since 1978 till date invariably giving the Local Government Area a new look of modern architectural buildings as residential apartments, shops, stalls, banks and offices which is quite different from the ancient (primordial) methods of using clay for house (building) construction. With the passage of time and establishment of cement factory in Sagamu, this obsolete ways of building construction was gradually improved upon giving Sagamu Local Government Area an architectural face lift to become what it is today. Furthermore, various wholesalers and retailers of Elephant cement within and outside Sagamu had been earning their living from the purchase of the company’s product either in small and large quantities serving as middlemen between the company and the final patronisers of the product since the establishment of West African Portland Cement PLC (WAPCO) in 1978 and its metamorphosis to Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC in 2001.9

From the above elucidation, it is obvious that the impact of Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC involvement in community development on Sagamu people since its inception are enormous and worthwhile impacting positively in the life and standard of living of the Sagamu people in the process. Suffice it to say that these impacts will continue to be commended by the Sagamu people for years to come if the company continue their philanthropic gesture.

                             NOTES AND REFERENCES


  1. Engineer Wole Adesoye: Personal Interview, Head of Department Electrical Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC, Sagamu, 52 years.
  2. Engineer Wole Adesoye: Personal Interview, Head of Department (H.O.D Electrical, Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC,Sagamu, 52 years.
  3. Lafarge Cement WAPCO Community Development Projects Report, Sagamu,2010.
  4. Ibid.
  5. O.A. Longe: Essential Commerce for Senior Secondary Schools, Lagos, Tonad Publishers Limited (Ltd), 2001, p. 197.
  6. John R. Schermerhor .Jr: Exploring Management in Modules, New Jersey (U.S.A), John Wiley and Sons Incorporated (Inc.), 2007, p. 65.
  7. Mr Folajimi: Personal Interview, Assistant Manager Lafarge WAPCO Nigeria PLC, Sagamu, 47 years.
  8. Mr Opaleye: Personal Interview, Chief Executive Officer (C.E.O) Bibire Blocks, Sagamu, 49 years.
  9. Mr Opaleye: Personal Interview, C.E.O. Bibire Blocks, Sagamu, 49 years.



Multinational Corporations like Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC discharge Corporate Social Responsibilities (C.S.R) to Local Government Areas which improves the conditions of the local communities. For instance, some multinational corporation provides social amenities like pipe borne water, road construction etc. In the area of education, they also prove to be helpful. They build schools in some communities and they also offer scholarships to the students of the local communities who studied in tertiary institutions.

This is not to show or say that other companies in Sagamu are not contributing their quota towards the growth and development of the Local Government Area or to praise or eulogise the company (Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC) but to encourage the company and other companies within Sagamu Local Government Area to further continue their developmental projects aimed at developing the geographical location.

The history of Sagamu has signified that the community evolved from different stages of development making it to be what it is today hence in order to continue the good work of the founders of Sagamu and further develop it into a mega city, companies like Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC and other companies in Sagamu has to continue their developmental projects in the town infrastructurally, educationally, socially, and economically by developing areas and spheres where they had not touched in terms of social amenities.

Obviously, Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC has contributed immensely to the growth and development of Sagamu Local Government Area making it one of the community to reckon with in terms of political, social, and economic affairs in Ogun State, Nigeria.




1. A.S.P. Akinyemi M.O.      M Civil Servant      31 22/08/2011
2. Barnabas O. Anyim      M Policeman      55 22/08/2011
3. Dr. Julius Adedoyin      M Lawyer      80 17/07/2011
4. Dr. Julius Adedoyin      M Lawyer      80 14/07/2011
5. Engineer Wole Adesoye      M Staff, Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC.      52 15/10/2011
6. Major Orekoya (Rtd)      M Community Chief      78 30/07/2011
7. Major Orekoya (Rtd)      M Community Chief      78 10/08/2011
8. Mr F.E. Adefioye      M Banker      52 27/07/2011
9. Mr Folajimi      M Staff, Lafarge Cement WAPCO Nigeria PLC.      47 23/07/2011
10. Mr Opaleye      M Businessman      49 20/10/2011
11. Mr Oyero      M Vigilante      45 04/07/2011
12. Mr Oyero      M Vigilante      45 06/07/2011
13. Mrs Adesanya      F Civil Servant      41 04/07/2011
14. Mrs J.I. Olujobi      F Civil Servant      45 04/07/2011
15. Mrs O.O. Shigbeku      F Civil Servant      32 08/07/2011

                              SECONDARY SOURCE




A.G. Hopkins: An Economic History of West Africa, United Kingdom (U.K), Longman, 1973.

John R. Schermerhor Jn: Exploring Management in Modules, New Jersey (U.S.A), John Wiley and Sons Incorporated (Inc.), 2007.

O.A. Longe: Essential Commerce for Senior Secondary School, Lagos, Tonad Publishers Limited, 2001.

Obaro Ikime (ed.): Groundwork of Nigerian History, Ibadan, Heineman Limited, 1980

Samuel Johnson: History of the Yorubas, Lagos, I.S.S. Bookshop, 1969.

U.I. Ukwu and B.W. Hodder: Market in West Africa, Ibadan, Ibadan University Press, 1969.

                              UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS


Ijebu Commission of Inquiry Minutes of Evidences Taken by a Commission of Inquiry into the Political and Administrative Relations between The Awujale of Ijebu Ode and The Akarigbo of Ijebu Remo, September-November, 1937.

Lafarge Cement WAPCO Community Development Projects Report, Sagamu, 2010.

Ogunbotu O.F: Impact of Kolanuts on the Economy of Sagamu,

Paper Presentation on Sagamu Day, 2003.

                                    INTERNET SOURCES

History of Makun/Sagamu, Origin, Migration and Settlement in Sagamu- (Retrieved 14/06/2011). (Retrieved 17/11/2011).

Profile of Sagamu Local Government headquarters-Sagamu- (Retrieved 13/06/2011).

Sagamu Local Government- (Retrieved 10/06/2011)



















The place of history in nation building (1)

RIWH Award for History from Africa
Awarded Paper, 2011 (Please don not cite without permission)

History which is the account of events that had had relevant impact in human development and management has from time immemorial played a pivotal role and can still play an important role in nation building. The place of history in nation building can not be over emphasized as i will be looking or diagnosing the role of history from the societal and emotional perspective. In other words, we can say that the fact that history examines the records of events means that both the positive and negative aspect of human changes are embraced.
Morally, history served as a reference point for most of Nigerian politicians as the often made reference to history. The former Military President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (General Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida) in 1986 during one of his public engagement was of the view that “history will forgive you for taking a bad decision but history will never forgive you for not taking a decision at all”. Suffice it to say that most Nigerian politicians often refer to history whenever they are being accused aither rightly or wrongly. Many of our public office holders when criticized whether fairly or otherwise often reply that history vindicate the just. This moralizing role of history tends to infuse in the public office holders a deep sense of awareness that posterity will definitely put their actions on trial.
E.H. Carr’s definition of history as a dialogue between the past and the present is still tenable. A clear understanding of the past can throw more light on the presentand thus prepare a nation for its future. In other words, the nation can learn from its successes or failures of the past and can use the past occurrence to modify its activities in the present and also prepare itself for the tasks ahead. As Robert Smith has written:
“…there lies the possibilities of extracting from the past, lessons for the present and future, and therefore a means of helping humanity in the understanding and handling of itd problems. These lessons are given by means of specific instances but are sometimes also formulated in generalization”.
From the foregoing, a nation can not do without its history. In fact, history is the study of society in time perspective. A nation that abandons its history is gone for good and thereby slips into oblivion. Guy Rocher was more emphatic on the relationship of history and the society when he remarked that:
“society is history. It is constantly engaged in an historical movement. In a transformation of itself, its members of its environment as of other societies which it maintains relations. These changes are more or less in harmony with the past of the society and follows a more or less explicit pattern”.
B.O. Oloruntimehin in his own contribution said:
“Every society is historically determined to the extent that it is a living record of important and continuing reactions to changes in its social, economic and political life…”
History has also been the principal medium for the transmission of culture (e.g for social control) even including the cosmology of the people in a nation. Africans transmit their cultures through educational institutions associated with puberty rites, secret societies, initiation of age grades, training and initiation of priests and diviners as well as those ceremonies taking place before coronation of a new chief or king. Besides, another means of transmitting culture in Africa is through the court historians or chroniclers. In many parts of Africa, there were carefully trained and selected historians in the palaces of Kings and courts of highly placed chieftains. Such palaces or court historians included the Arokin of the Old Oyo Empire and the Griots among the Mande peoples of the Western Sudan (like the Mande of Senegal, Guinea and Mali).

To be Continued Later.

(Essay written by: Oyediji Oluwaseun Babatunde, Mobile Number: +2348132148197 +2348094095664, E mail:, Facebook: Oyediji Oluwaseun Babatunde, Twitter: @profseunoyediji, Website/Blog: